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ALL Republican Delegates Are Unbound [and Have Been for the Past 160 Years]


By Curley Haugland and Sean Parnell

As the Republican National Convention prepares to kick off next week in Cleveland, there is a lot of confusion and controversy over the question of whether delegates to the convention are “bound” to vote for any particular candidate as a result of primary or caucus results, or state party directions.

The controversy stems from the fact that a large number of delegates believe they cannot in good conscience vote for presumed nominee Donald Trump, while the confusion stems from either a misunderstanding of the history and rules of the Republican National Convention, or more recently a blizzard of misinformation and misdirection coming from those who wish delegates were bound

Here are the facts about delegates to the Republican National Convention and efforts to bind their vote according to primary results or instructions from their state party.

Republican delegates to the national convention have always been unbound by national party rules, with the single exception. The issue was decisively settled in 1876 when delegates voted 395 to 353 to uphold past rulings stating that delegates could not be bound to vote against their conscience. Following the vote, the chairman of the convention summarized the party’s position by saying “[I]t is he right of every individual member thereof to vote his individual sentiments.”

In the following convention in 1880, rules committee chair James A. Garfield, who wound up winning the nomination himself on the 36th ballot and the White House that fall, wrote what is today Rule 37(b) of the temporary rules of the convention. This rule was enacted specifically to provide a mechanism that would ensure every delegate was unbound and free to vote their conscience, and it gave every delegate the right to challenge his delegation’s announced vote on the floor of the convention and have his vote recorded as he wished.

In rejecting the binding of delegates, both the 1876 and 1880 conventions were embracing what had been the understanding of previous conventions dating back to 1856, the first Republican National Convention. At both 1860 and 1868 conventions, some delegations arrived with instructions or recommendations from their state conventions on which candidate to vote for, and at both conventions the right of delegates to ignore those directions and vote their consciences was upheld.

The Republican National Convention has also historically rejected the idea that state laws could bind delegates any more than state party rules or directions could. The very first time delegates were supposedly bound by state law was at the 1912 convention.

Both the Illinois and Oregon delegations announced that state law dictated how they were to vote, but that some delegates did not want to vote as ordered. In the same way the Republican convention had always rejected any sort of binding, those delegates were allowed to vote according to their consciences and ignore state law. The Oregon delegation made similar announcements in 1916 and 1920, and each time delegates were allowed to ignore state law and vote their consciences.

Although some claim it is “illegal” for delegates to defy state laws instructing them how to vote, the U.S. Supreme Court held in two cases nearly forty years ago that state laws could not trump national party rules. Part of their reasoning was that political parties must be free from government control, particularly in matters as important as who the party’s nominee would be, delegate selection, and how delegates could vote.

A careful reading of the rules passed by the 2012 Republican National Convention proves this to be the common understanding and practice of the party. Rules 14 and 16, which govern the election and selection of delegates to the convention, include several references to the fact that the national convention is free to ignore state law, including two occasions where rules begin with the phrase “No state law shall be observed…”

And Rule 16(b)(1) stipulates that state party rules take precedence over state laws governing the election and selection of delegates, and that national party rules take precedence over both. So clearly the national party does not accept that state laws can supersede either state or national party rules.

The only time delegates have been bound by primary results or anything else was in 1976, when the campaign of President Gerald Ford pushed through a rule requiring votes from nineteen states with laws purporting to bind delegates be announced and recorded as if those laws were valid. It was widely understood at the time those laws were unconstitutional as a result of a recent Supreme Court ruling, but the rule was sufficient to bind delegates’ votes for the first time in Republican National Convention history.

The gambit seemed to pay off, as it helped Ford defeat his challenger, former California Gov. Ronald Reagan. At the 1980 convention the rule change pushed through by Ford was eliminated, and the rule reverted back to essentially the same language as the rule first adopted at the 1880 convention. The rule remains largely identical today.

The last remaining argument by those seeking to impose binding on delegates is Rule 16(a)2, which supposedly directs the secretary of the convention to record votes “in accordance with the delegate’s obligation under these rules, state law, or state party rule.” But there are two major problems with this rule.

The first is that it contradicts both itself and other national rules. State law and state party rules may conflict, as they do in Virginia, where state law dictates that all delegates must vote for the primary winner while state party rules say delegate votes should be proportional to the outcome. More importantly, both the state law and state party rule conflict with the national convention’s Rule 37(b), which prevents any delegate from being bound.

Second and most importantly is that Rule 16 is not actually part of the convention rules – it was added in 2013 as part of a section of rules that expire at the start of the 2016 convention. The only rules that can affect how delegates vote and whether they are free to vote their conscience are first the temporary and then the permanent rules of the convention. According to Rule 42, those rules are numbers 26 through 42 (plus the rules of the U.S. House of Representatives, which are not relevant to binding).

In short, the history of the Republican National Convention proves that delegates have always, with the exception of 1976, been free to vote their conscience, and the rule that has protected this right over the last 136 years remains part of the temporary rules of the 2016 convention. The U.S. Supreme Court’s rulings on the issue also make clear that delegates are free to ignore state laws purporting to bind them, and the one national party rule purporting to bind delegates expires at the start of the convention.

These facts make clear that all delegates are completely unbound and free to vote their conscience on any and all matters that come before them, including the first ballot to decide the party’s nominee for president. No rule change is needed to unbind delegates, so long as the party stands by its 160-year history (aside from the blemish of 1976) protecting this important right.

Delegates to the 2016 Republican National Convention have been entrusted with the duty of selecting the party’s nominee to face Hillary Clinton in November (probably – the Democrats also have rules in place that protect the right of delegates to vote their consciences). They should carefully weigh their options, considering not only primary and caucus results but also who is best suited to represent Republican values and win in November.

Whomever emerges as the party’s nominee will be strengthened, not weakened, by demonstrating that they won the Republican nomination based not on coercion and intimidation, but instead on delegates freely and honestly concluding they should be the nominee.

Curly Haugland is a Republican National Committeeman from North Dakota and serves on the rules committees of both the Republican National Committee and the Republican National Convention. Sean Parnell is a public policy consultant in Virginia. They are co-authors of the book Unbound: The Conscience of a Republican Delegate.

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An Open Letter and Urgent Plea To All Republican Delegates Headed to Cleveland


By Gary P Jackson

Congratulations! You have been selected by your community peers to represent them at the Republican National Convention this coming July in Cleveland, Ohio. You have been trusted by the members of your community to represent not only their best interests, and the best interests of the Republican Party, but most importantly, you have been trusted with looking out for the best interest of the nation. It is most important to remember that your duty to God and Country supersedes any other loyalties, real or perceived.

This is an awesome responsibility you have been trusted with. One that can shape history, and the future of the party, the nation, and the world. Many men and women have come before you, and on several notable occasions, they have made tough, but correct, decisions that have altered history, and made America, and the world, better for it. It is with that note that I hope to remind you just how serious your responsibility as duly elected delegates to the convention is. You hold the future, not only of the party, but the United States of America, and even the world, in the palm of your hand.

Noting this seriousness, and the dire circumstances you, the party, and the nation find ourselves in, I must have a serious talk with each and every one of you. This I shall attempt through this open letter and urgent plea.

It should come as no surprise that the Republican Party is seriously divided, and many are in open revolt over the so-called “presumptive nominee” Donald Trump. The shouts of “Never Trump!” are very real, and very serious. Many who have held their nose and placed party over principle in order to “win” an election are simply not willing to support such a vile, repugnant, and totally unacceptable [and COMPLETELY UNQUALIFIED] candidate as Trump.

Much has already been written about the fact than many, if not most, of the delegates headed to Cleveland are loyal to Ted Cruz, and were elected by their peers as “Cruz delegates” even in instances where the state party would claim those delegates are “bound” to Donald Trump, at least on the first ballot. It’s no secret that while Trump was doing his Vaudeville Act as “Trump the Insult Comic Politician” Cruz and his team were out there among the American people developing, and cultivating, a solid ground game to not only serve him in the primaries, but the general election, as well. This is a very important matter that I will discuss with you a little more at length before we are done.

I should tell you, once you start reading, this letter and plea may seem a little long winded, but I assure you that’s because I need to pass on legal and historical facts, as well as information you and your fellow delegates need to make a wise and considered decision, once you get to Cleveland.

Most of the latest talk about Cruz delegates dominating the convention, of course, surrounds a possible floor fight over the very platform of the Republican Party, since Donald Trump and his Pro-Planned Parenthood, pro-single-payer heath care, and pro-raising the minimum wage [among other things] stances are hardly compatible with the Republican Party! Many pundits, party officials, and “thought leaders” assume the battle is lost and Trump’s nomination is a fait accompli, so in their mind, you are their last defense, and your only real role, is to at least salvage the party platform and whatever dignity the GOP may have left!

Well, I’m here to tell you that you a much bigger role to play, should you choose it. A role that others before you have taken, when history and circumstances demanded it. You have a true opportunity to not only save the party, but possibly save the nation, and the greater world beyond our borders. Yes, my friends, this election and your decisions are that serious, and that important.

If you truly understand just how unacceptable and disastrous Donald Trump would be as the Republican Party nominee for President, then you have only one course of action: Refuse to place Donald Trump’s name in nomination as the Republican candidate. Barring your ability to effect that refusal and Trump’s name is somehow placed in nomination and seconded, refuse, and rally others to refuse to vote in affirmation of such a nomination, and deny Trump the required 1237 delegate votes [50% + 1] that are required for him to be the nominee. This is a course of action you are duly elected to take, should you choose to take it. History supports you on this.

You may have some questions and concerns. Let me try to answer those concerns by addressing questions you may have, starting with:

*** “But I am ‘bound’ to Donald Trump on the first ballot, and must vote for him, even if my conscience says otherwise.

Uh, not so much.

The fact is, only once in the entire history of the party have Republican delegates been bound by convention rules to vote for the winner of a state primary or caucus, or for that matter, follow the results of those primaries and caucuses in any manner whatsoever.

The year was 1976 and Ronald Reagan mounted a serious campaign to defeat the sitting Republican President, Gerald Ford. After pardoning Richard Nixon, post Watergate, Ford wasn’t exactly America’s most popular elected official! Though pardoning Nixon was the right thing to do, to move the country forward, many resented it, and Conservatives understood it would hurt him in the general election, most likely to the point of no return. [which it did] The establishment stood by him though, and at the convention, the rules committee amended the traditional rules, so that, for the first time in GOP history, Republican delegates were “bound” by the results of the elections. Had this not been the case, a real floor fight would have occurred, and Reagan may have well been the Republican nominee for 1976, and who knows how history would have been altered, mostly for the better. It should be noted that the rule binding delegates to the results of state elections was REMOVED at the 1980 Republican convention, and the rules have not changed since.

According to Curly Haugland a delegate-at-large, and senior member of the rules committee, all Republican delegates to the 2016 convention are, in fact, “Super Delegates.” He goes on to say:

Super delegates at the GOP convention are afforded the privilege of choosing which candidate they can cast their ballot for in the first round of voting, unlike regular delegates from states with binding primaries who must adhere to their state contests’ results, until the second round of balloting.

Haugland has, of course, been challenged on this, by more than a few, but cites rulings by the United States Supreme Court that affirm political parties are PRIVATE organizations and have the ability to set the rules regarding how delegates may or may not vote. These rules, of course, are set by the delegates themselves, at the convention, and these rules supersede any state party rules. Again, no Republican delegate has been bound to a candidate before OR SINCE 1976!

From the article:

Haugland responded to an accusation that his claim is wrong from a legal stand point and the RNC rules are not the relevant rules guiding the issue of binding delegates to their primary election result, but that different state statutes are the primary authority.

The United States Supreme Court has held several times that political parties enjoy protection from both the First and Fourteenth Amendments as they pursue their political objectives. The Republican Party is free to choose whether or not they want to be governed by state laws,” Haugland argued in a written statement.

He writes, “The case in point is the 1976 Republican National Convention that voted to bind the delegates to cast their convention votes according to the results of binding primaries. (State laws)The 1980 Republican National Convention voted to rescind the 1976 action based on testimony, stated in part, ‘The Supreme Court has spoken to this…they stated that party rules are supreme over state law.’ (Transcript of 1980 Convention Rules Committee, Page 67)”

He adds, “The Rules of the Republican Party prohibiting the binding of delegates have not been changed since the 1980 convention.”

You can read much more here.

Kerry Picket at The Daily Caller adds:

Haugland noted that the RNC’s Counsel’s Office Tom Josefiak cited current Rule 38, also known as Unit Rule, to RNC Rules Committee members on January 19, 2006, during an orientation session for Rules Committee members :

One of the important rules changes over the last 50 years has been the unit rule prohibited…that change was made so that an individual delegate can vote his or her conscience.

Josefiak was a panelist with other convention rules experts that included RNC lawyer Ben Ginsberg, then RNC Chairman Mike Duncan, and Rules Committee member Morton Blackwell. David Norcross, chairman of the RNC Rules Committee, oversaw the meeting.

How did members react to Haugland’s claim? The North Dakota Republican told TheDC, “Not a single word challenging either the past history or the present facts, nor even a single negative comment,” he said.

Haugland sent quotes to The Daily Caller from RNC members who responded to him.

You don’t think delegates are bound on the first ballot?

Fascinating! Can I publish your letter?

1976 battle was my first taste of politics…Can I post on my blog?

Thank you, Curly. That is insightful.

This is very revealing. Watch the establishment attempt to handle this with the Convention Rules Committee.”

Nice work, Curly

Very good.

Thanks, Curly. I just don’t know what to think about all this.


Haugland said of the various reactions, “I guess I am not surprised about the lack of negative comments. As has been said by many before me, ‘Facts are stubborn things.

This is something Curly has held for a long time. This is nothing new in terms of his interpretation to the rule…frankly I’m intrigued because 2006 wasn’t an election year. Curly has been advocating this position for a long time, but it’s up to the delegates…Tom Josefiak was a lawyer in 2006. That wasn’t a convention ruling,” RNC Spokesman Sean Spicer told The Daily Caller.

He added, “As Curly points out the 1976 thing he speaks about was during a convention. So what the lawyer said in 2006 was not at the committee…what one lawyer says in a panel is a lot different than what delegates decide. That doesn’t change any rule. That’s a decision that gets made by the delegates. The delegates would decide how that’s interpreted, ‘Oh we’re doing that again or we’re not.’ When they go to rewrite those rules, that’s something that they could discuss.

Read more here and a copy of the letter Haugland sent to his fellow rules committee members here.

On Wednesday, Jennifer Rubin, writing for the Washington Post noted that Donald Trump has, himself, created the grounds for a contested convention, no matter how many delegates he has “bound” to him, coming into the convention. Trump has consistently refused to release his tax information. Though it’s not unprecedented for a candidate to refuse, it’s highly unusual, and speaks to Trump’s character and credibility, especially since, at the start of his campaign, he promised voters he would release the tax returns, then almost immediately had excuse, after excuse, after excuse as to why he would not be doing so. Now he says he’ll release them after November. Uh huh.

Ruben speculates as to why he refuses to release them, and also points out how this can, and likely will be used to contest Trump’s standing as a potential nominee for the presidency on the Republican Party ticket. This is well worth your time to read and understand fully!

I’ll add my notion that Trump might not want his less than intelligent or inquisitive supporters to learn of his long, deep, multi-hundred-million dollar ties to his business partner: George Soros, the Nazi, and self-proclaimed owner of the democrat party! [Trump’s ties to Soros are public record for those that know how to use Bing or Google] Though it pains me to say that my former colleagues, who are now Level V Trump cultists, men who have written extensively about the evils of George Soros, now vigorously DEFEND Trump’s involvement, and are shocked … shocked … anyone would deny an “American businessman” his “constitutional right” to do business with whomever he wanted! Those were, in fact, their exact words! Sad and scary words, my friends!

*** “But what about the ‘will of the people’?!? They chose Trump!!!!

About that. If I hear “will of the people” one more time, I swear to God in Heaven I’m going to strangle someone!

The fact is, only 20% of Registered Republicans voted for Donald Trump. Twenty. Percent. Now, of course, that doesn’t take into consideration that some states, like Texas, which Ted Cruz won in a landslide, do not require voters to register by political party. At any rate, if you are in fact, as Registered Republican, chances are pretty good Donald Trump is not your candidate! Moreover, Trump still has only around 40% of the total votes cast in the primaries and caucuses. Most voters chose someone else. Put another way, the “will of the people” seems to be, if not #NeverTrump, at the very least anybody BUT Trump!

*** “Even so, to deny Donald Trump the nomination would be unprecedented and cause great upheaval

Yeah, not so much!

The fact is, should you chose to do the right thing, and deny Trump the nomination, you wouldn’t be the first, or even the second delegation in history, to a Republican National Convention, to ignore the “will of the people” or take matters into your own hands!

The year was 1860. History tells us this was a turbulent time in America. The democrat party, which had it’s convention before the GOP, adjourned it’s first attempt at that year’s national convention, because they failed to nominate a candidate! For the GOP’s part, this was only their second convention ever, and the first after the virtual collapse of the Whig Party.

Former New York Governor, and United States Senator William Henry Seward was considered a shoe-in, and the presumptive nominee. He should have been, too, because unlike Trump today, Seward, who had previously been elected as a Whig, was a good fit for the new Republican Party, a party that was founded on the sole purpose of abolishing slavery once and for all. Seward had a good record of not only opposing slavery, but actively helping Negro slaves. A funny thing happened on the way to the forum though. It seems Seward angered many in the party for his support of immigrants and Catholics [some stupidity never changes] then he angered his long time supporters with that time honored Republican tradition [Hell, he may have started it!] of “moving to the center“! He should have waited, like modern Republicans do, until after he got the nomination to “pivot“! He also had ties to the infamous political fixer Thurlow Weed, which seemed to sour everyone.

At any rate, the delegates, sensing a political disaster [never mind that democrats were imploding, with Seward, the GOP would likely lose the entire Western USA] chose another path, but not before all kinds of wheeling and dealing that included offering up cabinet posts and other such nonsense. After two days of this, and multiple ballots, the Republicans chose an old country lawyer, and former U.S. Congressman from Illinois, by the name of Abraham Lincoln. I don’t think I need to quote the resume of the man many consider one of our greatest presidents of all time!

It should be noted the Lincoln refused to participate in any backroom dealings, or handing over of patronages to delegates for their support!

One of the more interesting conventions happened in 1920. There had been eight candidates running for the nomination. By the time the convention rolled around, things were still wide open, with General Leonard Wood, Illinois Governor Frank Lowden, and California Senator Hiram Johnson all considered potential “presumptive nominees“! Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding had been a front-runner, at one point, but as often happens, his campaign played out and lost favor with the voters.

Much like we’ve heard for what seems like a million times this election season, the talking heads all predicted a “dark horse,” or “white knight,” as we’ve heard then called this 2016 season … would actually be nominated. [The more things change, the more they stay the same!] Pennsylvania Governor William Cameron Sproul, Pennsylvania Senator Philander C. Knox, Kansas Governor Henry Justin Allen, Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, or 1916 nominee Charles Evan Hughes were all “Golden Boys” to some! Sproul was emerging as the leader of this “dark horse/white knight“crew though.

Long story short, the 1920 convention was lively, to say the least! After all kinds of back and forth, two days, and nine, count em, nine ballots, Mr. “No Chance in Hell” Warren G Harding finally jumped into the lead. On the tenth ballot, Harding finally secured the required number of delegates needed to be declared the nominee. It was a nasty fight mainly because another candidate, Senator Hiram Johnson, who pretty much hated Harding [The feeling was reportedly mutual] refused to release his delegates! It’s been said, that in the end, Harding’s nomination was engineered by party bosses in a “smoke filled room” but at any rate, it was the delegates who chose Harding over the hollowed and sacred “will of the people“!

So as you see, as a delegate to the Republican National Convention, you indeed hold the party and the nation’s future in your hands. You and your fellow delegates have the ability, and duty, to exercise your judgement, even if it goes against the “will of the people.” Often delegates have a better sense of things than an angry, irrational mob, such as what we have today in the guise of Trump supporters.

*** “But Gary, if we DO go against the ‘will of the people’ the GOP will be in disarray and we will lose to Hillary because Trump voters will be pissed off!

Trump voters are cultists, so who knows what they might do! Trump and his fixer: Roger Stone, Jr. have threatened violence against delegates and riots in the streets should Trump’s nomination be “stolen” from him! That alone should tell you that neither you, nor I, want this man anywhere within a 100 miles the Oval Office, not even as part of the tourist tour of the White House!

I can tell you that politics in 1860 and 1920, most especially 1920, were just as nasty as they are today! They didn’t have the social media we have, but corrupt, dishonest, muckraking journalists, only happy to rile voters up, were a dime a dozen then, just as they are today!

In 1860 Abraham Lincoln defeated the “southern” democrat, John C. Breckinridge 180 electors to 72. A pretty decent landslide! Two other candidates got 39 and 12 electors respectively. It’s notable that the “official” democrat Stephen A. Douglas [As in the Lincoln-Douglass debates] got the 12 votes! Add all three of Lincoln’s opponents together and he still wins in a landslide!

The 1920 election, after what was the most contentious [some might even say, figuratively, the “bloodiest“] Republican convention in history, Warren G Harding defeated Ohio democrat James Cox in an absolute BLOWOUT 404 electors to 127! That translates to 60.3% of the popular vote for Harding to Cox’s 34.2%!

So, dear delegate, the last worry on your mind should be how your much considered decision of whether or not to deny Trump the nomination, will effect the outcome of the general election in November. History says, if you pick a man of honor and principle, things will be just fine.

*** “But what about my loyalty to the Republican Party?

Your loyalty, as an American, is to God and Country. Please don’t forget that you are not bound to any candidate, despite what your state party may claim, and you have multiple rulings by the United States Supreme Court, based on the 1st and 14th Amendments to the Constitution, to back you up!

*** “But Trump will get mad, run as a ‘third party’ candidate and screw us all!

Not to worry. So-called sore loser laws in many states, including the must wins ones, all prohibit such a thing. Once Trump ran as a candidate for the nomination of a political party, these laws prohibit him, or any other losing candidate, from moving further along. This would, any many cases, also prohibit any sort of write-in campaign, though you can bet a few die hard Trumpsters would do it anyway. You shouldn’t let a 3rd party or write -in effort be of any concern in your decision making.

BTW, getting back to your notion of loyalty to the RNC. It was the leadership of the Republican Party that allowed Trump and his circus act to gain steam in the first place! We all remember that Trump proclaimed that if everyone didn’t sign a “loyalty pledge” to support the eventual nominee, he would bolt and run 3rd party, something he could have done, since the voting hadn’t yet started. Trump, of course, seemed to be free of any obligation, himself, and continually threatened to “go rogue” should he be treated “unfairly” by the GOP, any candidate, or the voices in his head!

Trump was allowed to bash, not only fellow candidates, with absolute and ridiculous lies, but the party itself, with absolutely no repercussions!

The Republican leadership [such that it is] cowered in fear of this orange buffoon, when they should have told him to take a hike! They should have told him that his nonsense was not going to be tolerated, and he could take his candidacy elsewhere!

You may or may not know this, but Donald Trump has been running for President off and on since 1987! Trump was, in fact, the Reform Party candidate for President in 2000. He received just a taste over 15,000 votes nationwide. Knowing this, Trump didn’t pose much of a threat as an independent candidate, and no way in hell would Trump have spent his own money in 2016, when it’s generally accepted one needs close to a BILLION DOLLARS to mount a competitive presidential campaign.

Trump would have most certainly done better, as an independent, than he did in 2000, simply because the media loves circus acts and train-wrecks, and Trump would have provided a double shot of both, almost daily! [At least for the short term] The fact is, though, the media would have quickly settled in on the serious contenders for both party nominations and the general election.

*** “So, who do we nominate in Trump’s place?

As we both know Ted Cruz has the second best showing in delegates won through the election process, and it’s not even close. Past that, most delegates that are “bound” to Trump, were actually elected at their state conventions, by their fellow citizens, as Cruz delegates. [Or loyalists, if you prefer] At any rate, it’s no shock to anyone, that many, if not a strong majority, of the delegates going to Cleveland, in fact, support Ted Cruz.

You may not be able to give Cruz the nomination on the first ballot, as more than a few delegates may have doubts about voting conscience over the glorious “will of the people,” but you certainly have more than enough to deny Trump the nomination, on the first ballot, which means his bid would be over.

A floor fight won’t be a piece of cake, but the alternative, having a DEMOCRAT as the nominee for President on the Republican Party ticket, is just too hateful to contemplate!

*** “But Trump will WIN! He will take it to Hillary like he did to his Republican opponents.

Sure he will!

Regular readers of our blog know that I hate conspiracy theories with a passion. I go out of my way to debunk them, when I can!

One of the things that disgusts me, and millions more, is Trump’s embrace of such things, including accusing Ted Cruz’s father of somehow being mixed up in the murder of a beloved United States President! And don’t get me started on the birther nonsense that he threw out there directed not only at Cruz, but Marco Rubio as well. Trump’s raving lunatic supporters, of course, embraced all of this, with more than a few nuts claiming to have personally come in contact with Rafael Cruz and Lee Harvey Oswald together in New Orleans. Never mind that these young Trumpsters were likely not yet born at that time! And never mind that while Oswald was PRO-Castro, the elder Cruz was ANTI-Castro by that time!

Anyhow, I’ll give you my two cents on Trump and his actual desire to win the presidency. I’d say the chances that Trump ever had any intention of being our next President are slim, and none. And while I have no hard evidence to back my conspiracy theory up, I certainly have plenty of circumstantial evidence, starting with the fact that Trump has been one of Hillary Clinton’s top money men, supporting her every run for office, including giving her [and her PACS] some $200,000 in support of her 2008 presidential campaign. Trump is also a major contributor to the Clinton Foundation, and all of this, including donations to Harry Reid, Chuck Schumer, Nancy Pelosi, and a whole cast of democrats, are far above the “just doing business, because Trump is … you know … a businessman” rate!

Let’s not forget Trump verbal support for Hillary either. After Benghazi, and all the lies, standing in front of those flag draped coffins, Trump praised Hillary as “one of the greatest Secretaries of State in history.”

Here’s the thing, since day one, Trump hasn’t run as a Republican, and most certainly hasn’t run as a Conservative. Trump has run as the caricature that democrats have been trying to portray Republicans as. Trump has shown himself to be racist, sexist [big time] irrational, and irresponsible. Of course, Trump has also flip-flopped on any number of serious issues, often not only in the same day, but the same interview or speech! If one didn’t think Trump’s entire candidacy was a goof [which I and many more do] the only other explanation is the man is too mentally unstable to be President!

Trump flip-flopped so many times on Planned Parenthood, and the murder of innocent children at their hands, he managed to piss of BOTH SIDES of the debate, at the same time! Trump still says Planned Parenthood “does good things” and uses the language of a far left wing extremist while doing it! But he also claims he’ll cut off funding, and even suggested jailing those who participate in abortions! Even hard core pro-life advocates were appalled at that last “<i>promise</i>”!

Go back and look at Trump’s campaign, his actions, his events, the fact that he was actively re-tweeting numerous white supremacists, on almost a daily basis … for months, and we have a problem. The “white pride” Jew-hating wing of the Trump movement is quite strong [Or completely made up, as somewhere near 80% of these accounts Trump was re-tweeting appeared to be bogus! That’s another very long discussion we can go into at another time.] Either way, Trump has no problem with this trailer trash.

Frankly, it appears to me, and many more, that Trump’s real goal was to embarrass and discredit the Republican Party by reinforcing all of the stereotypes democrats have been pushing about us for decades, then ripping the GOP apart [Mission Accomplished] all in an effort to help his long time best old gal pal Hillary win in November!

Not sure how anyone would think that?

Well …

Trump and The Clintons

Does this look like a bunch that is about to go to war with one another?

Of course, this is only speculation based on observation and knowing Trump’s longtime history of trashing Republicans, especially Conservatives, while giving democrats, and their vile Anti-American agendas, his full-throated support!

If you want more substantial proof that Trump isn’t serious about beating Hillary, here’s a few tidbits to consider:

After Trashing every single Republican opponent with the kind of vile, nasty hate that only a democrat can do well, including accusing Ted Cruz of extra-marital affairs, via his good buddy who runs the National Enquirer, and accusing Cruz’s father of essentially murdering JFK, Trump has announced he may not run any negative ads against Hillary!

Michael Patrick Tracy’s response wasn’t much different than mine [though I threw in some “I told ya” so’s!

Trump told the Associated Press that instead of building a national ground game, you know, the essential door knockers and get out the vote people that one must have to win, that he will instead rely on free TV coverage and big political rallies! Because God knows that strategy worked well in the primaries! It worked so well, in fact that in states where 100% of the delegates are “bound” to Trump, these delegates are, in fact, Cruz delegates, duly elected, simply because Ted Cruz had one of the best ground games we’ve seen in a long time, while Trump failed to even participate! This includes Colorado!

Trump’s campaign people freely admitted they simply didn’t even bother to compete for votes in Colorado. When Trump lost big time, allowing Cruz to get dangerously close, Trump went on an insane rampage screaming about cancelled elections and stolen votes. Never mind that the people of Colorado voted on March 1st in 2917 separate local caucuses designed to pick delegates to the state convention, delegates, who in turn would chose the candidate to represent Colorado. [Ted Cruz] One man even claimed to have been bared from participating because he supported Trump, even tearing up his card on video tape. Turns out the guy was elected locally but failed to even attempt to follow the required procedures all delegates must, in fact, follow to participate at the state convention. We’ll just charitably call him dumb.

Of course, the raving lunatics that support Trump were digging this Lie-O-Rama and breathless repeated every outrageous lie Trump was telling!

There’s more, of course, and it’s substantial, past his erratic behavior.

Trump has now come out in favor of raising the minimum wage, saying we must have a “living wage” a phrase taken right out of Karl Marx’s Little Red Book, and I’m sure, the democrat party-social justice handbook! He’s trashed his own tax plan, and back-tracked on other issues, with more to come, I’m sure. Of course, Trump supports allowing grown men to use the same bathrooms as your young daughters.

I know this is a long read, but this is a dangerous time in America and you and your fellow delegates are the only thing that stands between America and total disaster. You are the front line soldiers in the battle for America’s future!

You have between now and July to investigate all of this for yourself. You have between now and July to talk with your fellow delegates and consider it all. You even have between now and July to look into the law yourself and verify what I have told you about your right as a Republican delegate to the National Convention to vote your conscience rather than the party line.

You can and should verify, not only the Supreme Court rulings, but the historical fact that only once in the history of the Republican Party have delegates been “bound” to any state vote, and that it was a dirty trick by the establishment to keep a solid Conservative, Ronald Reagan, from being our nominee. Something Reagan would rectify four years later, in 1980!

Ted Cruz is worth of your consideration as the Republican Nominee for President.

Never mind that Cruz polled much better against Hillary in key states than Trump does anywhere. Never mind that with Trump, even deep red states are now in danger of being lost to Hillary. There are other serious considerations at work here.

We’ve mentioned Cruz’s incredible ground game. There is no way in hell anyone will ever be President if they don’t have an incredible ground game. Democrats are useless as elected officials, and human beings, but they have the ground game, the election day get out the vote operations, and so on, down to a science, and work it, nationwide, with the precision of a Swiss watch! Trump isn’t even interested in HAVING a ground game!

But there is more. Cruz has a sold record of Conservatism, and doing what is right. He has a life time record of doing what he says he will. Be it his time as a Director at the Federal Trade Commission, or as the longest serving Solicitor General in Texas history, Cruz has looked after the best interests of the American people, and has vigorously [and successfully] defended Liberty and Freedom, as well as American sovereignty, and the Constitution.

The people of Texas sent Ted Cruz to Washington to do a specific job, and he made a promise to do it. He has kept his word to us. That’s already more than 90% of politicians will ever do!

Ted Cruz is a class act and a serious man. He has successfully argued landmark cases before the United States Supreme Court. Ted Cruz won’t look like a blithering idiot on stage as he debates Hillary Clinton!

In the end, let me leave you with just this: Your duty is to yourself, your God, and your Country. You simply cannot put party over principle … EVER. Now more than at any time in your life, integrity and principles are far more important than party bosses or the wild eyed ramblings of a mob that is running at a fever pitch, fueled by genuine anger at the direction our country is headed, and a Republican Party full of elected officials that promise one thing, then do nothing once elected, or worse, bow down to the democrats and give up the farm! It is your job, as duly elected delegates, to see past the fevered rants and the cult of personality surrounding Trump and make a wiser, more considered choice.

May I go further to suggest, that if you are confused by the fever I speak of, as well as the desperation Trump supporters genuinely feel, no matter how misguided and dangerous their support for Trump is, that you watch the 1961 film “Judgement at Nuremberg.” This Academy Award winning film, which features powerful and compelling performances throughout, deals with the aftermath of a nation whose otherwise good and decent people got caught up in a fever, and chose to support someone, who like Trump, had no regard for the Republic’s constitution, or rule of law. All they saw was someone who could “save them,” much as Trump supporters see him today. And like those Germans, Trump supporters don’t seem to care what Trump does, what laws he might violate, including military law and the Geneva Conventions, what basic human rights, like Free speech, Freedom of the Press, or even Religious Liberty [the cornerstone of America] that Trump has intimated he would trample, so long as he wins and America is “saved“!

This of course, is all not only ludicrous, but dangerous. More dangerous than any person or thing America has ever faced. And that, my fellow Americans, is the real heart of the matter. Not only is Trump unfit to be the Republican nominee for President, let alone President, he and the fevered mob he has created are a real and clear danger to the very fabric of our country. Trump may be playing us all for fools, and looking to help his buddy Hillary win [something I and many more truly believe] but the fevered mob he has created is real, and it it your job, your duty, in fact, to cool them down by sending them, and their candidate into a “time out,” while the rest of the nation gets on with nominating and then electing a new REPUBLICAN President!

No pressure, but don’t screw this up!

Sincerely and Kindest Regards,

Gary Signature

Gary P Jackson


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BREAKING: President of Argentina Accuses Obama of Treason Against The United States


By Gary P Jackson

Speaking at the United Nations, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchener … the President of Argentina … dropped a bombshell that, if true, would make President Barack Obama guilty of High Treason against the United States, and mankind as a whole.

According to President de Kirchener, in 2010 Gary Samore … the White House Coordinator for Arms Control and Weapons of Mass Destruction, approached her, requesting her government send enriched uranium to Iran. Samore admits this, and says he also approached Russia and France asking the same of them! All three countries refused his request!

From the Marshall Report: [emphasis mine]

The President of Argentina – Cristina Fernandez de Kirchener announced before the United Nations that her nation had been approached by an Obama administration official, Gary Samore, former White House Coordinator for Arms Control and Weapons of Mass Destruction, requesting them to provide enriched nuclear fuel to the Islamic Republic of Iran in 2010. (Samore did not dispute this claim).

The request fell short when Kirchener asked for the deal in writing and Samore was never heard from again.

Samore did release a statement admitting that he made the request in 2010 and Argentina balked at the deal. He also admitted that he had approached France and Russia with a similar proposal. That deal fell through as well. The deal was supposedly to allow Iran to send their low enriched uranium to Russia to enrich further, then send it to France to finish converting it into nuclear reactor fuel then send it back to Iran for its own use. Supposedly in an effort to prevent Iran from weaponizing its uranium stockpiles. That deal also fell through.

These deals lead to a new U.N. resolution that increased economic sanctions on Iran. And eventually to the bargaining table for the horrible deal Obama has worked out with them this year.

Obama’s White House administration has not responded to these potentially treasonous allegations as of yet.

There’s only one real reason for Iran to have enriched uranium, and it has nothing to do with generating electricity!

Obama’s nuke deal with Iran is itself an act that borders on treason, but deliberately arming the world’s leading sponsor of terrorism [a regime that screams “Death to America” on a daily basis] with nuclear weapons, AND roughly $150 BILLION in cash, so they can purchase intercontinental ballistic missiles capable of hitting targets within the United States [which Obama’s treaty allows] is the most evil thing any American president has ever done.

This is the sort of thing that should make the America people all across the nation stand up and DEMAND Obama’s immediate resignation, as well as criminal proceedings to commence. Obama has proven over and over that he is an enemy of the United States, and Free people all around the world. Everything he has done for the past 7 years has been designed to destroy America and her allies, and strengthen her enemies.

We can’t wait for January 2017 and Obama’s exit from office. He can do too much damage between now and then. He has to go now and criminal investigations must begin immediately. The survival of the Free world demands this.


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Cruz Totally Dominates Hot Air Poll With 35% Trump at 19% as Sarah Palin Grabs 11%

Cruz Palin

By Gary P Jackson

In the latest Hot Air poll of Conservatives, Senator Ted Cruz totally dominates the field. He’s the number one choice for President, and also leads in the “second choice” category, as well as the “consensus vote,” with totals of 35.40%, 22.20%, and 78.30% respectively:

Hot Air CNN Pre Debate Poll Results

While Hot Air’s rather exclusive, hard to join, members only, comment section has it’s share of loud Trump supporters, most readers aren’t as enthusiastic. On the other hand, most see Carly Fiorina as someone they could get behind, if Cruz fails to secure the bid. Trump, however was 5th on the second choice bid, and 8th on the reader’s consensus portion. Sarah Palin, who isn’t even an option among the 1st or 2nd choices, comes in at number 9 in consensus votes!

Speaking of Governor Palin, after almost a year of listing every single Republican that is still breathing, as an option … EXCEPT Palin … Hot Air finally asks readers:

If Sarah Palin was running, would you replace your first choice candidate and vote for Palin instead?

11% of Hot Air Readers said, yes they would. Not too shabby for someone who has shown zero interest in running!

Hot Air breaks down the count further and notes Cruz and Trump are, by far, the main benefactors of Governor Palin not being in the race.

palin instead of trump or cruz

I suspect any poll that asked a similar Palin question, would yield similar results and show that Cruz and Trump are the ones getting most of Palin’s supporters.

During the 2011 and early 2012 election season Governor Palin totally dominated Hot Air’s polling, right up until it became apparent she wasn’t running. Missed opportunity?

For a list of this survey’s polling questions click here.

For more polling results and analysis click here.


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On Point: Sarah Palin Interviews Rand Paul, Talks Iran Nukes, Facebook’s Christian Discrimination, Trump, and Much More


By Gary P Jackson

Yesterday I posted several videos from Governor Palin’s Monday episode of On Point. Tuesday’s show was even bigger, so here’s all of the segments in one spot:

Opening: Iran Nukes:

Diamond and Silk of “We Be Sisters“:

Governor Palin interviews Rand Paul:

Wayne Allen Root talks about the corrupt political machine:

The Governor LOVES IT when people take on corrupt politicians, as we all know. Never forget Sarah Palin took down the entire corrupt Republican Party in Alaska, with many being escorted off to prison by the FBI!

Facebook discrimination against Christians:

Final Thoughts from the Governor – “Obama’s Many Scandals“:

Sarah’s new doo is courtesy of Primp and Blow.


Looking at all of the comments from the Twitter universe, America approves!


Hard to believe she’s 51 years old! I wonder why she doesn’t ditch the glasses more often!

Speaking of which, Bristol busted her mom during a shopping trip in San Diego! [where On Point is taped]

Sarah Palin Spotted in California CVS Buying Reading Glasses

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Governor Sarah Palin Interviews Congresswoman Diane Black About Defunding Planned Parenthood


By Gary P Jackson

Governor Palin talks with Congresswoman Diane Black, who has introduced a bill to defund Planned Parenthood:

WASHINGTON, DC - JULY 28: Anti-abortion activists hold a rally opposing federal funding for Planned Parenthood in front of the U.S. Capitol July 28, 2015 in Washington, DC. (Photo by Olivier Douliery/Getty Images)

WASHINGTON, DC – JULY 28: Anti-abortion activists hold a rally opposing federal funding for Planned Parenthood in front of the U.S. Capitol July 28, 2015 in Washington, DC. (Photo by Olivier Douliery/Getty Images)

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Governor Palin Interviews Penny Nance About the Horrors of Planned Parenthood

Beautiful Baby

By Gary P Jackson

Penny Nance is the President and CEO of Concerned Women for America, the largest pro women’s group in the country. She and Governor Palin discuss the horrors of abortion, Margaret Sanger and the progressive eugenics movement, which has led to Black Genocide [ethnic cleansing] and the slaughter of tens of millions of innocent black babies.


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Video: Governor Sarah Palin Talks To Navy SEAL Jonathan Gilliam About ISIS

Sarah Palin Bear Practice Sarah Palin's Alaska

By Gary P Jackson

Governor Palin starts out her week of guest hosting by talking ISIS and what to do:

Gilliam gives American civilians practical advice should they find themselves in the middle of a terrorist attack. How to act, what to do.

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Governor Sarah Palin to Guest Host One America News Network’s Political Talk Show “On Point”

OAN Set for Sarah Palin

Palin Brings Star Power to Week of August 24th

By Gary P Jackson

This week Sarah Palin is going back to her journalistic roots and hosting a news show for One America News Network.

From Governor Palin’s Facebook page:

This week I temporarily dig into my journalism roots, guest hosting “On Point” for One America News. I’m excited to be asked to take this opportunity to give voice to so many good people I hear from every day! I hear your concerns for our future, and I like to focus on SOLUTIONS. A week of being back behind the desk instead of fitting the ol’ conventional TV format requiring ten second sound bites is an enjoyable change!

For more info, here’s One America News’ website:

Friends, the more information America is provided, the better off we’ll be as you do your own homework on candidates and issues. Then, you’re empowered to take a stand… take action… get this great country back on track! This new news network is appreciated – its owner is a true American entrepreneur, taking risks with this startup in order to reward YOU with needed information and quality programming. (No commercials?! That right THERE is a reward!) I admire anyone moving forward with their dreams to compete in a rough and tumble world, and the media world is certainly that.

One America News is going to get there, and I’m just honored to be asked to sit in for a few shows and hopefully help get it in your living rooms and always on your mind.

– Sarah Palin

From One America News Network:

Palin Brings Star Power to Week of August 24th

Washington, D.C., August 18, 2015 – One America News Network, “OAN”, a trusted source for 24/7 national and international news, announced today that Governor Sarah Palin will be guest hosting One America News Network’s political talk show “On Point” the week of August 24th. “On Point with Guest Host Sarah Palin” will air nightly in prime time at 10 PM EST, beginning Monday, August 24th through Friday August 28th.

I didn’t get into public service to do the safe and easy things. A ship in harbor is safe, but that’s not why the ship is built!” said Palin. “I’m excited for this opportunity to give voice to so many Americans we hear from every day, and the concerns about our future, and how best to fix the problems. Sitting back behind the desk instead of in the hot seat is enjoyable and welcomed temporary return to my roots. I’m thrilled to guest host “On Point,” she concludes. Palin began her career in broadcasting.

According to Robert Herring, Sr., CEO of One America News Network, “Palin’s experience and insights will further the political conversation, especially meaningful as the 2016 Presidential race heats up. She’s been influential in helping multiple candidates on the right, including some running for the GOP Presidential nomination. Regardless of one’s political view, the discussions will be meaningful, while also being entertaining.

Palin served as Governor of Alaska – the youngest and the first woman to hold the office. She was the first woman nominated by the Republican Party as a Vice Presidential Candidate, running alongside Arizona Senator John McCain in 2008. In 2009, Governor Palin formed SarahPAC where she has worked tirelessly and effectively to elect conservative candidates across our nation. She is a three-time New York Times bestselling author, with her fourth book “Sweet Freedom” out this fall from Regnery Publishing. Governor Palin is one of Time Magazine’s “Most Influential People” in the world, twice listed on Barbara Walter’s annual “10 Most Fascinating People” and one of the 100 “Most Significant American’s Of All Times” as ranked by the Smithsonian Institute. Palin holds a Communications degree with an emphasis in journalism. She and her husband Todd live in Wasilla, AK and have five children and two grandchildren.

One America News Network has been providing extensive coverage of the 2016 Presidential campaign, including numerous exclusive one-on-one interviews with the leading candidates. One America News Network will release on-going 2016 Presidential polling results. Complete poll results of this recent poll, along with past polls, are available on One America News Network’s website at:

About One America News Network (“OAN”)

One America News Network offers 21 hours of live news coverage plus two one-hour political talk shows, namely The Daily Ledger and On Point. While other emerging and established cable news networks offer multiple hours of live news coverage, only OAN can claim to consistently provide 21 hours of live coverage every weekday. Third party viewership data for Q2 2015 from Rentrak, namely accumulated viewer hours, shows that OAN surpasses other news channels such as Al Jazeera America, Fusion, Fox Business News, and Bloomberg TV as measured on AT&T U-verse TV, across 65 markets.

Since its debut on July 4, 2013, One America News Network has grown its distribution to over 12 million households with carriage by AT&T U-Verse TV (ch 208/1208 in HD), Verizon FiOS TV (ch 116/616 in HD), GCI Cable, Frontier Communications, CenturyLink PRISM TV (ch 208/1208 in HD), Consolidated Communications, Duncan Cable, GVTC, and numerous additional video providers. One America News Network operates production studios and news bureaus in California and Washington, DC. For more information on One America News Network, please visit

For more information, contact:

Stephanie Gonzalez – Affiliate Relations
Herring Networks, Inc.
Phone: 858-270-6900

OAN Has a video archive, so look for Governor Palin’s episodes on the website there, if you don’t have the network on your cable provider.

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This is America!

By Isabel Matos

I remembered this short but important part of Ted Cruz’s speech last year at the Lincoln Day Dinner in Miami. It was part of a thoroughly enjoyable evening, and appropriate for the occasion on my mind. What is America? And what makes one American? Some people wonder why I call myself Cuban-American. Two reasons. First, I am proud to be from the country where I came from. My maternal country is my roots and what makes me who I am to a great degree. Second, as a citizen who is here legally, I am also proud to distinguish myself from groups who are less overt about expressing where they are from, for whatever reason. I know that my family obtained citizenship not by cheating or extorting politicians, so I’m proud to be part of the type of immigration that makes America great. The hyphenated term is to help Americans understand a little better that not all Hispanics want to change America. We don’t attempt to subvert the laws that make it great, either. That is wrong. On the contrary, this country inspires us to offer all we have in return for the laws that protect its freedoms which we don’t take for granted. What we experienced in our country has shaped us. We are American, but it also doesn’t mean we ignore politics.

If a group of individuals is thankful for this country, and are willing to sacrifice, share and be a part of the what makes it great, then so be it. We are grateful this country gave us refuge from political persecution. I know we never came for the goodies or benefits. In fact, we expected to return within a year and it has become 56 so far. The Cuban Embassy in Washington opened on July 21st and there is still persecution in Cuba. It is not free. I know American’s know that, but with an election ahead I will get out of the way what I want to get out the way so we can discuss other things we can do to keep this country as free as possible.

I don’t see how the extreme polarity and lack of consensus in the Republican party will help us in 2016.  Look, I’m not a candidate kind of a gal. I’m into context. Candidates are like flavors people choose to love one day, hate the next. That is part of the problem. Voters have too many options. I have seen the last four years as an experiment, one which shows the need for government in many ways, and one in which the struggle for freedom, still very much on the minds of Americans, needs to be focused like a razor on. But the grassroots is disorganized despite all the passion. We need an establishment to hate it because it is trying to oppress us, but we need to understand its rightful place as well. The argument we have tried to make is for self-government. But people need order. They need rules. Without them they don’t always govern themselves accordingly.

If I sound pessimistic it’s because people do not take responsibility for their actions. When you abuse the freedom to act responsibly, of course, government will step in and capitalize on it. America has been a free for all. Self-interest is so distracting that it leaves little or no time to watch the foxes in the coop, permitting government to get away with what it does. Let’s face it. People get discouraged when they see the same politicians making the same promises and the same “leaders” making the same demands and not getting anywhere because they lie and we end up more disenfranchised. Of course when we vote we hope politicians will do their jobs so we can lead our own. But they don’t. And haven’t.

Conservatives are about pursuing their dreams and not much about the greater good. Why not? It’s a great question. How about a combination of a little more of number two? I am not convinced beyond a reasonable doubt that people can govern themselves accordingly given no restrictions. So we need to deal with this: We need guidelines. We need to uphold principles, but not in a way that threatens the very people we turn to when the time comes where we need them to protect us. When war comes. Can we live without government? NO. Maybe I am missing something. I just think the type of chaos I am perceiving will lead to harsher, bigger government. I hope I’m wrong. How can we create a consensus, though, when the divided states of America seem like one big border-less mess!

Where’s our general? And where is the call to action I am craving?

People confuse a country with its government or politicians. I will never confuse who is doing what is right, but I understand that it doesn’t matter who it is, it matters what is being done that is right. That is my compass. I’m going to vote for the Republican nominee whoever it is (it will not be our choice most probably – nothing has changed nor will it so why not accept it) and stop this silly mindset that you should take the fight for standing for what is right on the big day at the ballot box. How about accepting the nominee for who he/she is and focus and concentrate on ways to deal with that candidate’s record to continue the problem-solving, the taking stands, instead of the childish and endless whining.

I digressed. Getting back to the little clip. It’s pretty darn cool that a room full of immigrants or children of immigrants are represented by two Americans with their background in the Republican presidential primary. We all came penniless, only with a few items like photos and clothes, but penniless, and  filled with hopes it was just a short visit and soon we’d be back home. It never happened. I don’t speak for anyone but the fact is, it is deeply embedded in our psyche, whether individually or collectively.  I hope it is not misconstrued for support one candidate or the other. That would be missing the point. It is something to be proud of and I admit I am. I wish there were another woman running, but I digress there, too. If she had been a Cuban-American, maybe having experienced the permanent loss of her country, maybe she would have seized the opportunity that our two senators did. Far be it from me to speculate there. I dare not. All I know is many people wanting to be here appreciate the opportunities America offers possibly more than others already living here who take them for granted.

To finish this long “short” introduction, I thought I’d add a definition which I found to be insightful and eloquent, not to mention true, of what America means, by the woman who could be a more integral part of the political process.

george washington

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